The main goal of ecological farming is to cause as little damage to nature as possible. This way of farming has two hey goals covering the environmental sustainability and animal welfare. The environmental sustainability describes farming without synthetic fertilizers, pesticides, and other technical materials. Land must be improved with organic fertilizers, crop rotation, disease, and pest control by biological means. Crop production aims to maintain species diversity and ecological balance in the environment, thus reducing pest and disease outbreaks. While the term animal welfare stands for the development of livestock farming, it is essential to consider the housing conditions and feeding aspects of the animals, with particular emphasis on the supply of sufficient good quality organic feed and proper veterinary care.
The ecological farming is all about promoting the agriculture in the sustainable way when there is no damage to the nature, people, or animals. As a result, the main principles cover different aspects of this activity. One of the most important principles are strict restrictions on chemical synthetic pesticides, synthetic fertilizers, antibiotics for animals, food supplements in processing and processing additives. Prohibition of the use of genetically modified organisms, as well as priority for the use of on-farm resources, such as: manure used for fertilizers, farm-raised animal feed. The long-term crop rotation-farming practice, where different crops are grown in shifts in the same field to avoid different bacteria, viruses, and pests.
The animal welfare is also described by such principles as the selection of breeds resistant to diseases and adapted to local conditions, or animal husbandry in open enclosures, in the open air, feeding with organic feed. The usage of specialized technologies for the care of different animals as well as plant and animal waste and by-products are processed during the production of plant products and livestock products are also included.
Certificates and Legislation in the European Union
The ecological and organic production method is a new agricultural system that complies with the requirements of the law issued by the EU Council Regulation EER 2092/91 and the rules of ecological and organic farming. It differs from an ordinary way of farming because an organic farm is growing all the agricultural products without the usage of synthetic fertilizers, pesticides, growth stimulants, and other chemical substances that might cause any kind of damage to the nature or animals.
Organic farmers are inspected at least once a year to determine whether their activities meet the standards of organic farming. Organic products grown on an ecological farm are marked with a special label. Every farmer who is selling organic products must have an official certificate that must specify which products are certified and how long the certificate is valid.
Organic production is regulated by the European Union Community regulations EC no. 834/2007 and EC no. 889/2008. Additional requirements are set out in the Organic Farming Rules approved by the national ministries of agriculture. These rules and regulations set out the requirements for the production, processing, transport, storage, marketing, and labeling of organic agricultural products.